**Probabilistic number theory** is a subfield of number theory, which explicitly uses probability to answer questions of number theory. One basic idea underlying it is that different prime numbers are, in some serious sense, like independent random variables. This however is not an idea that has a unique useful formal expression.

The founders of the theory were Paul Erdős, Aurel Wintner and Mark Kac during the 1930s, one of the most intense periods of investigation in analytic number theory. The Erdős–Wintner theorem and the Erdős–Kac theorem on additive functions were foundational results.

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